Eye Disorders

Eye is one of the most precious and gifted organ of not only the human beings but for most of the animals in this world. Eyes are the primary organs of vision of human beings and like any other part of our body suffers from various diseases and disorders. Human eye is divided according to the medical terms into two main parts: a. Anterior segment which comprises of the following structures: frontal surface of the vitreous humor, iris, lids, cornea, sclera, conjunctivitis, ciliary body and the lens. B. Posterior segment which comprises of the posterior portion of vitreous, retina, choroid and the optic nerve. The eye disorders itself is a vast topic of study and in this article we will discuss briefly the various disorders related to these structures of the eye.

Among the anterior segment diseases some of the main diseases are- inflammation of iris, sclera, cornea and conjunctivitis such as conjunctivitis, scleritis, etc. which are typically characterized by redness of eyes, itchy feeling of the eyes, etc. and such mild cases are common to occur almost in every individual and are commonly treated by simple medicines mostly antibiotics and by following few simple hygienic methods. Another anterior segment eye disorders includes Amblyopia or commonly known as the lazy eye syndrome which is mostly seen in kids as it’s said to be congenital but also found in adults in minority. In Amblyopia, one is often lazy in its operations or inactive than the other and is typically treated with the help of suppression therapy and with anti-suppression exercises. But, the dominating eye disorder of the anterior segment of the eye that dominates most of the individuals of all age groups including small children and which are both congenital and acquired are the refractive errors or disorders of the eyes. The main refractive errors of the eye includes: farsightedness or hyperopia: where an individual can see the distant objects clearly but his or her near vision is blurred. Nearsightedness or Myopia: Where an individual cannot see clearly the distant objects, Presbyopia: it is an age related refractive error which is caused by the aging of the crystalline lens of the eyes and the individual often experiences difficulty in reading specially the small prints, Astigmatism: is caused usually due to the presence of cylindrical power in the lens of the eye. All these errors can be corrected by wearing convex, concave, reading and cylindrical lenses either with the help of spectacles or contact lenses. Cataract or opaqueness of the crystalline lens is also a common disorder which can be treated only through the cataract surgery. Apart from these some of the common eye disorders can be caused due to defective, faulty and prolonged wear of contact lenses which can also induce severe headache and trigger migraine in some individuals. Blurred vision, contact with foreign objects, itching and burning sensation are also some common eye disorders. Among the disorders of the posterior segment of the eye: Diabetic retinopathy- Retinal disorder caused by diabetes, Age related macular degeneration, retinitis, choroiditis, etc. Glaucoma is another very common and painful eye disorder caused due to increased eye pressure and can be treated with medicines and occasional surgical intervention leading to continuous vision loss and sometimes to blindness.

Eye disorders can be avoided, prevented or kept under vigilance only if an individual checks his or her eye on a periodic time interval with an eye care practitioner.

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